Etiolation: elongation, discolouration and poor plant growth due to lack of chlorophyll.
Eukaryote: having a true nucleus.
Evergreen: a plant with live leaves persisting through one or more winter seasons.
Exocarp: outermost layer of the fruit wall (pericarp).
Fascicle: a cluster of flowers arising from the same point without a peduncle.
Fertigation: application of fertilizers, soil amendments or other water soluble products through an irrigation system.
Fibrous roots: usually formed near the surface, these roots have a large surface area to absorb moisture and nutrients.
Field capacity: water content of a soil after being saturated with water and the excess has been allowed to drain away.
Filament: stalk like portion of a stamen, supporting the anther.
Flavonoids: a large group of plant polyphenolic compounds, including anthocyanins, flavones, flavanols and isoflavones.
Foliar fertilization: nutrients dissolved in water and applied to the foliage of the plant thru which they are absorbed.
Follicle: dry, one-celled fruit with a single placenta and splitting along the opposite edge.
Fruit set: the beginning of fruit growth on the plant; this may occur following pollination and fertilization, or pollination without fertilization, or without either.
Gall: large swelling on plant tissues caused by bacteria, fungi, nematodes or insect parasites.
Gamete: reproductive cell. A cell or nucleus that fuses with another in sexual reproduction to produce a zygote.
Gibberellins: a large group of chemically-related plant hormones associated with promotion of stem growth, seed germination and many other functions.
Girdling: (cincturing, ringing) removal of a ring of bark from a woody stem that interrupts transport in the phloem until regrowth takes place.
Glabrous: Having no hairs, bristles or stalked glands.
Glaucous: surface with a fine white substance (bloom) that will rub off.
Globose: globe-shaped, spherical.
Guard cells: the pair of specialised epidermal cells surrounding the stoma pore regulating its opening and closing.
Guttation: the process by which water passes from inside the leaf and is deposited on the outer surface, often on the edge or from points.
Gynoecious: plants that bear pistillate (female) flowers only.
Gynoecium: whorl or group of carpels in the centre or at the top of the flower; all the carpels in a flower.
Gynomonoecious: plants that bear both pistillate and perfect (hermaphrodite) flowers.
Halophyte: plant with the capability to grow in saline habitats.
Hesperidium: a berry where the endocarp is a mass of succulent juice sacs.
Heterostyly: a flower in which styles and stamens are of different heights/lengths relative to each other to promote cross pollination.
Heterozygous: non-identical alleles on a chromosome.
Hilum: a mark or scar on a seed produced by separation from the funicle or placenta.
Homozygous: identical alleles on a chromosome.
Hypocotyl: the portion of the axis of the plant embryo below the point of attachment of the cotyledons; forms the base of the shoot and the root.
Hypogeal germination: emergence of cotyledons below the soil surface.
Imbibition: initial taking up of water, particularly with seeds, prior to germination.
Imparipinnate: a compound leaf with a terminal pinna.
Imperfect flower: a unisexual flower; lacking either male or female parts.
Inarching: a form of grafting whereby two plants are grown side by side, one to be the stock and the other to be the scion. They are both prepared for grafting and bound together and allowed to heal before the top of the rootstock and the bottom of the scion are severed.
Incomplete flower: flower lacking at least one of the four basic parts – sepals, petals, stamens or pistils.
Indehiscent: not opening naturally when ripe.
Indeterminate: of limited growth.
Inferior ovary: one with the flower parts growing from above; one that is adnate to the calyx. Fruits from these have an apical calyx.
Inflorescence: any complete flower cluster including branches and bracts; clusters separated by leaves are separate inflorescences.
Integrated pest management: pest management using a combination of methods - genetic, biological, management and chemical.
Integument: natural covering, such as skin, shell or rind; also spelled as tegument.
Involucre: a number of bracts subtending a flower cluster, umbel or similar.
Jasmonic acid: plant signalling molecule found in membrane lipids which regulates plant growth and activates plant defences against insects and fungal pathogens.
Juvenile: plant, organ or tissue that is not yet fully developed or mature; a plant that is unable to produce flowers and fruit. Morphological features may differ between juvenile and mature plants.
Kernel: Mature embryo; the seed.
Lamina: blade or expanded portion of a leaf.
Lanceolate: lance-shaped, longer than wide, widest below the middle, tapering toward the apex, or both apex and base: resembling a lance head.
Lateral roots: Arise from the pericycle in mature regions of the root through the establishment of secondary meristems that grow out throughthe cortex and epidermis, establishing a new growth axis.